This lecture by Marianne Talbot is entitled “A romp through the history of philosophy from the Pre-Socratics to the present day» and is posted on You Tube by Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. It is also available in audio from the podcast webpage.
One of the main themes of the talk is the difference between Plato and Aristotle, which is later repeated in the distinction between Rationalists and Empiricists. It is possible that Plato believed in reincarnation, which would mean that people could be born with a full set of eternal truths already in their heads. In any case, he thought that ideas existed separately from the world that we can see around us. The empiricists, following Aristotle, thought that our experience of the world should be enough to find out what is real.
One argument on the Empiricist’s side is called “Occam’s Razor”. What does that argument say?