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An "account" could be several things, depending on the context:
(1) a bank account where some money is kept - this money belongs to the account holder, but the bank is keeping it.
(2) a story that somebody is telling or writing

But in computer science, it means an identity in a website. It may keep some information about the user, and probably the user has a password which lets them access the site.


an arrow is a thin stick with a sharp point at the end. You would shoot it using a bow.

bow and arrow

Picture by Rod Waddington from Kergunyah, Australia

Arrow symbols are also used in diagrams and signs to show direction.

Course - "5500 BC the first city"


something made by a person. Usually something of historical interest. (in USA English this is written "artifact"

Course - "5500 BC the first city"



A Bill is a plan for a new piece of legislation. At this point it is being discussed in parliament (UK) or the "chambers of Congress" (USA) ... but it has not become law yet. After it has become law, it may be called an "Act of Parliament" (UK) or "Act of Congress" (USA) or a "statute".

in course "Researching a law essay"



(adjective) a material that can be put into the earth, and it will rot or decay to become part of the natural cycles of biology.

Course - "remakery"




if something is canonical it is the standard or basic version. For computer science, if something is "canonical", it means the data is organised in the standard way, which will help to avoid mistakes.

In literature, we often talk about "the canon" meaning the set of poems, plays and novels that everyone thinks are important. Don't confuse canon with "cannon" - which is a kind of big gun.

see the course CS50's Introduction to Computer Science


adj. to describe something that is connected with thinking.

Cognition (the noun) means a mental process which the person thinking is aware of. This could include other activities apart from logical reasoning, for example: trying to remember something, or paying attention to an action that you are going to repeat later.


A community (noun) is the people who live in a particular area. Metaphorically, it can be applied to other kinds of groups where people share a common interest or some common characteristic.

Community is also used to make compound nouns like "community garden" or "community college" for things that people in that particular place can use.

Course - "remakery"



Legal work may be contentious where it involves a disagreement between two or more parties.

Course -



A contingency is something that may happen in the future - probably something bad, which you should plan for.

Course - "Lord Leggatt's Commercial Law lecture"


The process of moving the legal ownership of a piece of land or a building from one person to another



if something is "cryptic" it probably has hidden meaning, it is difficult to understand.

We often talk about "cryptic crosswords" a kind of puzzle where you have to interpret the question correctly to find the answer.

see the course CS50's Introduction to Computer Science



The empiricist philosophers, such as Locke, Berkeley and Hume, thought that thinking on its own was not enough to be sure that an idea is true or real. For them, the best way of finding truth is using your senses and doing experiments. 

Course - "the idea of redness"



A fee is the money paid for a service. We talk about "legal fees" (paid to a lawyer) as well as "tuition fees" (paid to a school or university).

course -



A fresco is a painting on a wall, made using a special technique. The colours are mixed with plaster to make a smooth surface.

Course - "5500 BC the first city"


hunting and gathering

before the invention of agriculture, human beings moved across the landscape and collected food by gathering anything that they could eat. They would trap or hunt animals for food.

Course - "5500 BC the first city"



a justification is a good reason or explanation for something. Often it is connected with an action where there are moral or political arguments against it.



This is a device for inputting into a computer:

Chinese computer keyboard Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) by Bev Sykes in flickr.

The same word could also be used to refer to a musical instrument:

someone playing a keyboard instrument.from PxHere



litigation is the process of solving a legal dispute where the case will be decided in a court of law. The field is divided into criminal and civil litigation.

course -



a loop happens when something flexible goes back in a circle and crosses or touches a part of itself:

a loop of string

(picture from )

In computer programming, a "loop" is a function that continues repeating until a particular condition is completed.

see course CS50 introduction to computer science:



a mouse is a small animal with a long tail mouse - the animal(photo by George Shulkin CC BY-SA 1.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

but it is also a device which people use to interact with a computer

a computer mouse with a scroll wheel on the top

mutual aid

the arrangement where people form a group, and the members agree to help each other. Credit unions and building societies are examples of mutual aid societies.

course Cooperative Platforms:




in philosophy, ontology is a part of metaphysics which considers what exists. It may exclude things which are imaginary or which are just a combination of more simple components.

Course - "the idea of redness"



/ˈpɒs.tʃə.leɪt/ (verb) when you put forward an idea or a theory which will be used as a basis for making a bigger or more complicated theory.

Also a noun - a postulate /ˈpɒs.tʃə.lət/ ... an idea or a theory put forward as the start of a longer argument or theory. (note the different pronunciation).

Course - "the idea of redness"



the Rationalist philosophers, such as Descartes, Leibniz and Spinoza, thought that there were some truths such as mathematics and logic which were available to people's thought without any information from their experiences and observations.

Course - "the idea of redness"


speech act

Some philosophers prefer to talk about a "speech act" rather than a statement.  This is because they are paying attention to the purpose of a speaker instead of the question of whether the statement is true or false.

see the course "speech acts" :


in legal English "substantive" means a question that is about how people or organisations must behave. It is different from "procedural" law, which governs how the legal system itself works - how to make laws and use them.

Course - "Lord Leggatt's Commercial Law lecture"



trade union

an organisation for people who work in a particular industry. Together, they can improve their working conditions by negotiating with employers as a single collective.

course: Cooperative platforms -




to "verify" is to prove that something is true or correct. We can talk about different methods of verification, for example, by doing an experiment, or by checking mathematical or logical formulations.

see the course "speech acts:"


(adj.) things that are related to seeing. We talk about "visual aids", things you can show like pictures or diagrams to help people understand what you are saying.

Course CS50 introduction to computer science:

"Scratch is a visual programming environment"


adj. describes something from a volcano - a mountain that lets out hot liquid rock, sometimes with explosive force.

Course "5500 BC The first city" -

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